Horner's Syndrome

Horner's Syndrome is a collection of symptoms caused by damage to the sympathetic nervous system. First discovered by Johan Friedrich Horner, a ophthalmology, nationality Switzerland (1883-1886). He found abnormalities of clinical symptoms an infected person Lues (syphilis).

Clinical symptoms of Horner's syndrome consists of:
  • Ptosis.
  • Pupillary miosis.
  • Enoftalmus.
  • Anhidrosis.

This set of symptoms occurring ipsilateral.

Horner's syndrome is not a disease, but a collection of symptoms due to the primary disease as the main cause. Example: Pancoast tumor or mediastinal tumors, stroke, carotid artery dissection, injury at birth, or various types of drugs.

The symptoms of Horner's syndrome occurs
  • Ptosis; are most easily visible symptoms. Ptosis interpreted inability to lift the eyelid. This is caused by paralysis of M. Mullerian (Superior Tarsal Muscle) are innervated by sympathetic nerves.
  • Miosis; was constricting the pupil. This happens due to interference resulting in paralysis of the sympathetic pathway system M. Dillatator Pupillae that the inability of the pupil to dilate.
  • Enoftalmus; circumstances that make the eyelid ptosis fall cause eye more impressed enter the eye.
  • Anhidrosis; described above that also function in sympathetic neurons innervate the sweat glands, thus resulting in no interruption of the sympathetic nervous perspiration on the face. If the lesion is in the neurons preganglion it will occur in the body anhidrosis ipsilateral, but when postganglion neuron lesion on the anhidrosis limited to the forehead.
Horner's syndrome cause of the lesion should be determined, because the lesions distal to the superior cervical gangion typically 98% benign, whereas 50% against proximal lesions are malignant. In wine is often the case is congenital Horner's syndrome is often caused by birth trauma, or the presence nerutoblastoma growing on the sympathetic pathway. In congenital lesions that may occur with iris heterochromia.

Each neuron lesion of the sympathetic pathway may be clinically indistinguishable because it will show the same symptoms, but with a more thorough examination and investigation we will be able to distinguish the level of neurons where the interference occurs.

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