4 Theory of Pain

There are several theories about the occurrence of pain stimuli, including (Barbara C. Long, 1989).
  • Specificity Theory.
  • Pattern Theory.
  • Gate Control Theory.
  • Transmission and Inhibition Theory.

1. Specificity theory
  • Pain stimuli enter the spinal cord through the cornua dosalis synapsed in the posterior region.
  • The spinal cord then ascend to tract underlined lissus and crossed the median on the other.
  • Ends in sensory cortex where pain stimuli are passed.

2. Pattern theory
  • Pain stimuli entering through the dorsal root ganglion to spinal cord stimulation and T cell activity
  • Resulted in a response that stimulates all parts of the cerebral cortex that is higher and contractions cause muscles to contract so that the perceptions and cause pain.
  • Perception is influenced by the modality of the reaction T cell response

3. Gate control theory
  • Presented by Melzack and Wall in 1965.
  • The theory proposes that pain impulses can be regulated / inhibited even by defense mechanisms throughout the central nervous system.
  • In this theory explained that the substance gelatinosa (SG) which is on the tip of the dorsal spinal cord nerve fibers have a role as a gateway (gating mechanism), gate control mechanism can modify and alter the sensation of pain that came before they got to the cerebral cortex and cause pain.
  • Pain impulses can pass if the gate is open and the impulse will be blocked when the gate is closed.
  • Shut the gate is a basic pain management therapy.
  • Based on this theory the nurse can use to manage the patient's pain.
  • Neuromedulator can close the gate by inhibiting the formation of substance P.
  • According to this theory of action is believed to close the gate massase pain.

4. Transmission and Inhibition theory
  • Stimulus in nociceptors through the transmission of nerve impulses so that the transmission of pain impulses to be effective by specific neurotransmitters.
  • Then become effective inhibition of pain impulses by impulses in large fibers that block the impulses in slow fibers and endogenous opiate system suppressive.

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