- Specificity Theory.
- Pattern Theory.
- Gate Control Theory.
- Transmission and Inhibition Theory.
1. Specificity theory
- Pain stimuli enter the spinal cord through the cornua dosalis synapsed in the posterior region.
- The spinal cord then ascend to tract underlined lissus and crossed the median on the other.
- Ends in sensory cortex where pain stimuli are passed.
2. Pattern theory
- Pain stimuli entering through the dorsal root ganglion to spinal cord stimulation and T cell activity
- Resulted in a response that stimulates all parts of the cerebral cortex that is higher and contractions cause muscles to contract so that the perceptions and cause pain.
- Perception is influenced by the modality of the reaction T cell response
3. Gate control theory
- Presented by Melzack and Wall in 1965.
- The theory proposes that pain impulses can be regulated / inhibited even by defense mechanisms throughout the central nervous system.
- In this theory explained that the substance gelatinosa (SG) which is on the tip of the dorsal spinal cord nerve fibers have a role as a gateway (gating mechanism), gate control mechanism can modify and alter the sensation of pain that came before they got to the cerebral cortex and cause pain.
- Pain impulses can pass if the gate is open and the impulse will be blocked when the gate is closed.
- Shut the gate is a basic pain management therapy.
- Based on this theory the nurse can use to manage the patient's pain.
- Neuromedulator can close the gate by inhibiting the formation of substance P.
- According to this theory of action is believed to close the gate massase pain.
4. Transmission and Inhibition theory
- Stimulus in nociceptors through the transmission of nerve impulses so that the transmission of pain impulses to be effective by specific neurotransmitters.
- Then become effective inhibition of pain impulses by impulses in large fibers that block the impulses in slow fibers and endogenous opiate system suppressive.