Important risk factors that cause of COPD
- Cigarette smoking
- Air pollution
- Exposure in the workplace (coal, cotton, grains)
Other factors, according to (Doenges, 1999: 152) allergens, emotional problems, cold weather, exercise, drugs, chemicals, and infection.
Nursing Diagnosis for COPD : Risk for Infection related to inadequate primary defenses (decreased cilia work, persistence secretions)
Goal: there are no signs and symptoms of infection with
- Expressed understanding of the cause or individual risk factors.
- Identify interventions to prevent or reduce the risk of the individual.
- Demonstrate techniques, lifestyle changes to enhance the safe environment.
- Assess the patient's body temperature.
- Assess the importance of deep breathing, effective coughing, frequent position changes, and adequate fluid intake.
- Assess color, character, odor sputum.
- Teach proper hand washing.
- Keep an eye on visitors.
- Encourage a balance between activity and rest.
- Discuss the need for adequate nutritional intake.
Nursing Diagnosis for COPD : Impaired gas exchange related to impaired oxygen supply (airway obstruction by secretions, bronchospasm, air trap), damage to the alveoli.
Goal: Facilitate the exchange of gas with
- The patient will demonstrate improved ventilation with adequate tissue oxygenation with blood gas analysis in the normal range and are free of symptoms of respiratory distress.
- Patients will participate in a treatment program in the level of ability or situation.
- Assess frequency, depth of breathing, note the use of accessory muscles, breathing lips, inability to speak or speaking.
- Elevate head of bed, help patients choose a position that is easy to breathe and practice deep breathing.
- Assess the color of the skin and mucous membranes.
- Push spending sputum.
- Auscultation of breath sounds, note the decrease in air flow area and additional noise.
- Keep an eye on the level of consciousness or mental status.
- Keep an eye on vital signs and cardiac rhythm.