But in a State, which was included in COPD is pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Another name from COPD is "Chronic obstructive airway disease" and "ChronicObstructive Lung Diseases (COLD)"
Signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms are as follows:
- Body weakness
- Shortness of breath
- Shortness of breath on exertion and breath sounds
- Wheeze or wheeze
- Prolonged expiratory
- Form the barrel chest (Barrel Chest) in advanced disease
- The use of accessory muscles
- Decreased breath sounds
- Sometimes found paradoxical breathing
- Leg edema, ascites and clubbing
1. Ineffective airway clearance related to bronchoconstriction, increased sputum production, ineffective cough, fatigue / decreased energy and bronchopulmonary infection.
Objectives: Achievement of client airway clearance
- Give the patient 6 to 8 glasses of fluid / day unless there is a cor pulmonale.
- Teach and give encouragement use of diaphragmatic breathing and coughing techniques.
- Assist in the provision of action nebulizer, metered dose inhalers.
- Perform postural drainage with percussion and vibration in the morning and evening according to the required.
- Instruct patient to avoid irritants such as cigarette smoke, aerosols, temperature extremes, and smoke.
- Teach about the early signs of infection should be reported to your doctor immediately: increased sputum, change in sputum color, viscosity of sputum, increased shortness of breath, chest tightness, fatigue.
- Give antibiotics as required.
- Give encouragement to patients to immunize against influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
2. Ineffective breathing pattern related to shortness of breath, mucus, bronchoconstriction and airway irritants.
Objective: Repair the client breathing patterns
- Teach clients diaphragmatic breathing exercises and breathing lips sealed.
- Give a boost to intersperse periods of activity with rest. Let the patient make decisions about treatment based on patient's tolerance level.
- Encourage the use of respiratory muscles exercises if required.
3. Impaired gas exchange related to ventilation perfusion inequality
Objective: Improvement in gas exchange
- Detection of bronchospasm at auscultation.
- Monitor client's dyspnea and hypoxia.
- Provide drugs and corticosteroids bronkodialtor appropriately and alert the possibility of side effects.
- Give aerosol therapy before meals, to help thin secretions so that lung ventilation is improved.
- Monitor the administration of oxygen.