Osteosarcoma (osteogenic sarcoma) is a tumor that arises from bone-forming mesenchyme. (Wong. 2003: 616).
The places most often affected are the distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal humerus. The most rare is the pelvis, column, vertebrae, mandible, clavicle, scapula, or bones of the hands and feet. More than 50% of cases occur in the knee area. (Otto.2003: 72).
a. Bone pain.
Bone pain is the most common symptom found in the process of metastasis to bone and is usually the initial symptoms are recognized by the patient. Pain arising from stretching the periosteum and the endosteum nerve stimulation by tumor. The pain can be intermittent and more pronounced at night or while resting.
The presence of bone metastases can cause bone structure becomes more fragile and at risk for fracture. Sometimes fractures arise before other symptoms. Areas are often fractured long bones in the upper and lower extremities and spine.
c. Emphasis spinal cord
When a process of metastasis to the spine, the spinal cord becomes desperate. Displacement of the spinal cord is not only painful but also parese or numbness in the extremities, micturition disorders, or numbness around the abdomen.
d. Elevation of calcium levels in the blood
This is due to the high release of calcium from bone reserves. Elevation of calcium can cause loss of appetite, nausea, thirst, constipation, fatigue, and even impaired consciousness.
e. other symptoms
When metastasis to the bone marrow, symptoms according to the type of blood cell that is affected. Anemia can occur when on red blood cells. If the white blood cells are affected, the patient DAPT easily infected infeksi.Sedangkan on platelet disorders, can cause bleeding.
Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Osteosarcoma (osteogenic sarcoma)
1. Chronic pain related to pathological processes and surgery.
Goal : Pain is reduced / no pain.
- Give an explanation to the client on how to cope with pain and cause pain.
- Teach relaxation and distraction techniques.
- Monitor vital signs
- Collaboration in providing analgesic.
Goal: Not the case of injury (injury).
- Explain to the client on how to cope with and the occurrence of injury.
- Limit activity.
Goal: Improved self-esteem and no complications.
- Provide motivation to the client.
- Involves the role of the family.
Goal: The client can understand the disease process and treatment programs.
- Explain to the client about the disease process and treatment programs.
- Encourage clients to comply with the treatment program.