Pneumoconiosis is a respiratory disease caused by particles (dust) that enter or settle in the lungs. Pneumoconiosis diseases of many kinds, depending on the type of particles (dust) entering or inhaled into the lungs. Some types of pneumoconiosis diseases that are often found in areas that have many industrial and technological activities, ie silicosis, asbestosis, Byssinosis, anthracosis and beriliosis.
Most pneumonia, can be through aspiration infectious particles. Infectious particles filtered in the nose, or caught and cleaned by mucus and ciliated epithelium in the airways. When a particle (virus / bacteria) can reach the lungs, the particles will be dealing with alveolar macrophages, and also with systemic immune mechanisms, and humoral.
By the time the body undergoes changes anatomical and physiological defense, then the infectious particles can reach the lungs, then spread and cause pneumonia. More than 40 minerals inhaled causes lung lesions and abnormalities of X-rays. Most, such as lead, barium and iron, are relatively harmless and accumulate in the lungs in the same way as coal, but do not produce a functional or morphological abnormalities. Asbestos dust into the body through a variety of ways. Among others, by vacuuming when breathing, swallowing saliva and phlegm together or consume food and drinks that contain a small number of fibers. Most fibers are ingested allegedly penetrate the intestinal wall, but subsequent migration in the body is unknown. After a long latency period, between 20-40 years, these fibers can cause cancer.
Nursing Diagnosis that may occur in patients Pneumoconiosis :
- Ineffective airway clearance related to the increased production of secretions or thick secretions.
- Anxiety related to difficulty breathing and fear Suffocation.
- Disturbed Sleep Pattern related to cough, inability to perform the supine position, the environmental stimuli.
- Imbalanced nutrition less than body requirements related to loss of appetite and nausea and vomiting.
- Impaired gas exchange related to airway obstruction.
- Risk for infection related to chronic disease processes.
- Chronic pain related to inflammation of the lung parenchyma.
- Knowledge deficit : the condition and the need for action related to misinterpretation.
- Activity intolerance related to imbalance between supply and oxygen demand.
- Risk for fluid volume deficit related to fever, sweating, vomiting.