1. Pain related to abdominal distension.
Observation of vital signs.
Assess the level of pain.
Set a comfortable position for the client.
Give a warm compress on the area of the abdomen.
Collaboration with physicians in the delivery of analgesic therapy as indicated.
2. Pain related to muscle spasms, shifting bone fragments.
Review the location, intensity and type of pain.
Maintain immobilization of the affected part with bed rest.
Provide a quiet environment and give impetus to conduct entertainment activities.
Change position to help if tolerated.
Explain the procedure before starting.
Keep an eye in doing range of motion exercises (passive / active).
3. Pain related to ischemic tissues.
Assess the level, frequency, and pain experienced by the patient's reaction.
Rational: to find out how severe the pain experienced by the patient.
Explain to patients about the causes of the onset of pain
Rationale: The patient's understanding of the causes of pain that occurs will reduce the strain of patients and allows patients to be invited to cooperate in taking action.
Create a quiet environment
Rationale: Excessive Rangasanga of environment will aggravate pain.
Teach distraction and relaxation techniques.
Rational: distraction and relaxation techniques can reduce the pain felt by the patient.
Adjust the position of the patient as comfortable as possible as you wish of the patient.
Rationale: a comfortable position will help provide opportunities for relaxation in the muscles optimally.
Perform massage and compress the wound with the current BWC wound care.
Rational: massage can increase spending vaskulerisasi and pussy while BWC as a disinfectant that can provide a sense of comfort
Collaboration with physicians for analgesia.
Rational: analgesic medications can help reduce the patient's pain.
4. Pain related to tissue trauma
Observation and record the location of the severity of complaints (scale 0-10) and the effects of pain.
Rationale: Helps to distinguish the cause of pain and provide information about the progress or improvement of disease, complications, and effectiveness of interventions.
Monitor vital signs.
Rationale: Increased pain will improve vital signs.
Teach to use relaxation techniques and deep breathing or distraction techniques such as listening to music or reading a book.
Rationale: Helps divert or control the pain, refocus and improve coping
Collaboration: Giving analgesics as indicated.
Rationale: Reduces pain.
5. Acute pain related to irritation of the gastric mucosa (gastric).
Note the presence of epigastric pain (heartburn sensations such as burning / heat), sore
Motivation clients not to eat late. Eating snacks in between meals when the stomach was sore.
Observations no other accompanying complaints such as nausea / vomiting, abdominal bloating.
Observations of vital signs
Give appropriate medications medical program.
6. Pain related to injury.
Assess the pain scale 0-5.
Rational: patient reported pain usually above the injury level.
Aids patients in the identification of trigger factors.
Rational: pain is influenced by; anxiety, tension, temperature, bladder distension and lay down long.
Provide comfort measures.
Rationale: provide a sense nayaman a way to help control pain.
Encourage the patient to use relaxation techniques.
Rational: to refocus attention, increase the sense of control.
Give anti-pain medication order.
Rational: to relieve muscle pain or to relieve anxiety and improve the rest.
7. Pain related to postoperative conditions
Anticipate the need for pain medication and or additional methods of pain relief.
Note the document, and the identification of complaints of pain in the side of the incision; abdominal, facial grimacing to pain, decreased mobility, behavioral distraction / relief.
8. Pain related to surgical incision secondary to amputation
Evaluation of pain: derived from Panthom sensation of limb or incision.
In the event of limb pain Panthom Give analgesics (collaborative).
Teach clients provide gentle pressure to put butts in the towel and pulled the towel with berlahan.
Give pain medication as order and evaluate its effectiveness.
Give other comfort measures that can help, such as a change in position with a pillow or bolster.