3 Epidemiology of Diarrhea

Epidemiology of Diarrhea

The spread of germs that cause diarrhea

Germs that cause diarrhea are usually spread through fecal-oral, among others through food / drink contaminated feces or direct contact with the feces of patients. Some behaviors can lead to the spread of enteric bacteria and increase the risk of diarrhea behavior include:
  1. Not provide full breast milk in the first 4-6 months of life in infants who are not breastfed risk to suffer from diarrhea greater than in infants fed breast milk is full and the possibility of suffering from severe dehydration is also greater.
  2. Using milk bottles, use the bottle facilitates digestion by germs, because the bottle is difficult to clean.
  3. Storing cooked foods at room temperature. When food is stored several hours at room temperature the food will be contaminated and the bacteria will multiply.
  4. Using contaminated drinking water. The water may have been contaminated from the source or at the time kept in the home, home contamination can occur if the storage area is not closed or when contaminated hands touch the water at the time of taking water from the storage place.
  5. Not washing hands after defecation and after throwing feces child or before eating and feeding a child.
  6. Not throwing feces (stool including infants) with completely. Often assume that the baby's stools are not dangerous when in fact it contains a virus or bacteria in the large amount of animal feces while it can cause infections in humans.


Host factors that increase susceptibility to diarrhea

Several factors in the host may increase the incidence of some diseases and duration of diarrhea. These factors are:
  • Not breastfeeding up to 2 years. Breast milk contains antibodies that can protect us against various germs that cause diarrhea such as Shigella and V cholerae.
  • Malnutrition. Severity of illness, duration and increased risk of death due to diarrhea in children who suffer from nutritional disorders, especially in patients with malnutrition.
  • Measles, diarrhea and dysentery are common and result in severe in children who are suffering from measles within the last 4 weeks of this as a result of a decrease in immune patients.
  • Immunodeficiency / immunosuppression. This situation may only be temporary, such as after a viral infection (such as measles) or maybe that last as long as in patients with AIDS (Automune Deficiensy Syndrome) in children severe immunosuppression, diarrhea can occur because germs are not parogen and may also last long.
  • Soon Proportional, diarrhea is more common in children under five years old group (55%).

Environmental factors and behavior

Diarrheal disease is one disease-based environment, the two dominant factors, namely water supply and excreta disposal, these two factors will interact with environmental factors If human behavior is not healthy because of diarrhea and accumulate germs contaminated with human behavior that is not healthy too . Namely through food and drink, it can cause diarrhea cases.

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