Mental retardation is defined as weakness / inability cognitive appeared in childhood (before the age of 18 years) is characterized by the function under normal intelligence (IQ 70-75 or less), and accompanied by at least two other limitations in the following areas: speech and language; self-care skills, ADL; social skills; using community facilities, health and safety; functional academic, work and relax, etc..
Clinical manifestations of mental retardation, among others:
1. Cognitive impairment (pattern, thought process).
2. The slow reception skills and language expression.
3. Failed to get past the main stages of development.
4. Head circumference is above or below normal (sometimes larger or smaller than normal size).
5. Possibility of slow growth.
6. Possibility of abnormal muscle tone (more frequent weak muscle tone).
7. Possibility of dysmorphic features.
8. Delays in fine and gross motor development.
Mental retardation refers to the real limitations of daily living function. Mental retardation include weakness or cognitive disability that appears in childhood (before age 18 years) were characterized by below-normal intelligence function (IQ 70 to 75 or less) and with other limitations in adaptive functioning at least two areas: speaking and language, abilities / skills of self-care, homemaking, social skills, use of community facilities, self-direction, health and safety, functional academic, leisure and work. Cause of mental retardation can be classified into prenatal, perinatal and post-natal. Diagnosis of mental retardation established early in childhood.
1. Cerebral palsy
2. Seizure disorders
3. Psychiatric disorders
4. Impaired concentration / hyperactivity
5. communication deficits
1. Increase healthy brain development and the provision of care and an environment that stimulates growth.
2. Should focus on the biological health and early life experiences of children living in poverty in terms of prenatal care, regular health monitoring and family support services.
Nursing Care Plan for Mental Retardation (MR)
The assessment consists of a comprehensive evaluation of the shortcomings and strengths associated with the adaptive skills; communication, self-care, social interaction, use of facilities in the community self-direction, health care and safety, functional academic, recreational skill formation, and tranquility.
B. Nursing Diagnosis
1. Impaired growth and development related to cognitive dysfunction.
2. Impaired verbal communication related to cognitive dysfunction.
3. Risk for injury related to aggressive behavior imbalance of physical mobility.
4. Impaired Social Interaction related to difficulty speaking / social adaptation difficulties.
5. Interrupted family processes related to having a child with mental retardation.
6. Self care deficit related to changes in physical mobility / lack of developmental maturity.
1. Assess the factors causing impaired child development.
2. Identification and use of educational resources to facilitate optimal child development.
3. Provide consistent care.
4. Increase communication verbal and tactile stimulation.
5. Give simple instructions and repeat.
6. Give positive reinforcement on child outcomes.
7. Encourage children to do their own maintenance.
8. Difficult child behavior management.
9. Encourage children to socialize with the group.
10. Create a safe environment.
D. Education on Parents
1. Each stage of child development for ages.
2. Support parental involvement in child care.
3. Anticipatory guidance and management face a difficult child behavior.
4. Inform existing educational facilities and groups.
E. Expected results
1. Children to function optimally the relevant level.
2. Families and children are able to use coping with challenges due to disability.
3. Families are able to obtain the resources community facilities.
Source : http://nurseskomar.blogspot.com/2013/07/nursing-concepts-and-care-plan-for.html