Hypertension is persistent high blood pressure, where the systolic pressure above 140 mmHg and diastolic pressure above 90 mmHg (Smeltzer & Bare, 2002, volume 8 issue 2 p. 896).
Hypertension is a pressure higher than 140/90 mmHg and were classified according to degree of severity, has a range of normal blood pressure, height to malignant hypertension.
Based on the cause of hypertension is divided into two categories, namely:
- Essential Hypertension / Hypertension Primer: of unknown origin, also called idiopathic hypertension. There are about 95% of cases. Many factors that influence it such as genetic, environmental, hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin system, defects in the excretion of Na. Increased intracellular Na and Ca and the factors that increase risk, such as: obesity, alcohol, smoking and polycythemia.
- Secondary Hypertension / Renal Hypertension. There are about 5% of cases. Known specific cause of such use of estrogen, kidney disease, renal vascular hypertension. Primary hyperaldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome, feokromusitoma, coarctation of the aorta, hypertension associated with pregnancy and others
According to Doenges (2000: 43) nursing diagnoses that may arise are as follows:
- Activity intolerance related to general weakness.
- Impaired sense of comfort: pain (acute), headache related to increased cerebral vascular pressure.
- Imbalance Nutrition: more than body requirements related to the redundant input with respect to metabolic needs.
- Lack of knowledge about the condition / situation, prognosis, treatment needs associated with not knowing the source of information.